United States Department of the Interior
National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places: Application Abstract
(Describe the historic and current physical appearance of the property. Explain contributing and noncontributing resources if necessary. Begin with a summary paragraph that briefly describes the general characteristics of the property, such as its location, setting, size, and significant features.)
The Hotel Morck is a five story, H-shaped building of Late 19th and 20th Century Revival: Classical Revival design. It is located at the corner of Heron St. and ‘K’ St. in downtown Aberdeen, WA. The building was completed in 1924. The building was originally U-shaped; an extension was added to the northwest corner of the building circa 1929 to increase lodging capacity.
The original exterior features of the Hotel Morck remain largely intact. The building’s historic front door fronts east toward ‘K’ Street. Upon entry, one occupies a grand lobby which features a mezzanine level that oversees the lobby. Above the mezzanine there is a large skylight with an intact grid of copper “leaf” elements. The foundation of the building is concrete; the east and south façades are faced with brick and accented with wonderful ornamental terra cotta cornices, spiral columns, and corners. The east and south façades feature a dark ceramic tile veneer from the ground plane to the bottom of the window sill anchoring the building to the ground visually. The eastern and southern parapets feature elaborate, terra cotta dolphins in low relief, terra cotta tall ships in low relief, and other nautical themes. The north and west façades are constructed of cast in place concrete that was painted yellow in 2000 and then a in 2013 light buff color to “match” the masonry . The Morck’s guest rooms primarily feature double-hung sash windows typical of Late 19th and 20th Century Revival. All roofing is constructed of 160 mil torch-down asphalt with an aluminum surface. The building cornice is of light colored Terra Cotta.
The Hotel Morck has three entryways facing east toward ‘K’ Street. Many exterior windows are missing or broken; some wooden windowpanes are missing or beyond repair. The northernmost entryway on ‘K’ Street currently provides access to the ballroom, is not original to the building and will be removed and brought back to the façade’s original configuration as part of the proposed restoration project.; the center and main entryway on ‘K’ Street provides access to the lobby; and the southernmost entryway on ‘K’ Street provides access to the former Highlander Lounge. The main entryway is constructed of arched terra cotta tiles without pilasters. The main entryway’s original oak double-doors and marquee were replaced at an unspecified date. Terra cotta signage above the main entryway features four artichoke-shaped finials, dolphin reliefs, drapery reliefs, and a large “W” insignia. One entryway on the north side of the building provides access to the ballroom. The main entryway features a wooden doorjamb with a glass door. A portion of the brick veneer façade has fallen from the south side of the building due to mortar deterioration. This section has been replaced with brick of similar aesthetic design during the 1990s.
Original load-bearing concrete columns, reinforced with rebar, are present on all floors. The original grand staircase, access staircase, elevator shaft, ballroom walls, and two skylights (one over the lobby and one over the former café) remain intact and capable of being rehabilitated. Original first floor interior corbels and cornice returns are intact. The lobby and ballroom’s original terrazzo flooring remains largely intact, though it exhibits deterioration due to protracted neglect. Terrazzo extending from the easternmost entryway was overlaid with stone in the 1960s. The lobby’s front desk has been removed due to obsolescence and disrepair. The lobby skylight is constructed of metal with numerous small, square glass panes. Geometric terra cotta and plaster reliefs frame the interior of the skylight. The original iron mezzanine balustrade remains intact on the second floor. Exposed joinery indicates that a portion of the balustrade on the northeast corner of the mezzanine was removed to accommodate a staircase at an unspecified date; this staircase was subsequently removed at an unspecified date. The grand staircase’s original iron and mahogany banister remains intact on the second floor.
The ballroom’s original suspended cove ceiling, correlated crown molding, and corbels remain intact and prepared for rehabilitation. Ornamental plaster on the ballroom’s cove ceiling has deteriorated due to neglect and is not present.
First floor non-load bearing interior walls have been removed due to significant deterioration and vandalism that affected the structural integrity of rooms. Remaining first floor interior plaster walls are significantly deteriorated due to neglect and vandalism. Originally, first floor interior walls separated the main lobby from several small storefronts fronting east and south, a bar, a restaurant, and a kitchen. The easternmost, second-floor roof accommodates a skylight that was enclosed by roofing materials at an unspecified date.
The structural integrity of guestrooms on floors two through five was severely compromised due to neglect and vandalism. Interior walls on floors two through five have been completely removed. These floors were the subjects of serious asbestos abatements in 2006. Piping is exposed in numerous places as a result of the asbestos abatement. Floor plans for floors two through four were nearly identical and utilitarian in nature. No molding, panel work, or ornamental design elements exist on floors two through five. All flooring on floors two through five is concrete; stone overlay was added to the hallway area of the second floor at an unspecified date. Floor five features a vaulted wood ceiling. Originally, floors two through five housed 114 guest rooms.
Statement of Significance Summary Paragraph
The Hotel Morck, in Aberdeen, Washington is historically significant for its broad contributions to the broad sociopolitical development of Grays Harbor, the Pacific Northwest, and the United States. It also exemplifies Late 19th and early 20th Century Classical Revival architecture, with the extensive use of terra cotta that was in use by Seattle architects at the time. The building is the work of Seattle-based master builders Rounds-Clist Co., who completed the historic Seattle Chamber of Commerce Building in 1924. Upon completion, the Hotel Morck was touted as the finest hotel in Southwest Washington, a testament to developer Ernest A. Morck’s vision and civic pride.
The City of Aberdeen, located at the confluence of the Chehalis and Wishkah rivers at the head of Grays Harbor, was founded in 1884 by local resident Samuel Benn. Benn, was a pioneer visionary who saw the areas tremendous potential of the region’s rich fisheries and abundant timber. While during the latter half of the nineteenth century a number of small communities were established on Grays Harbor, Aberdeen quickly grew to dominate as the commercial and cultural hub of the region. While the harbor fell short of possessing the facilities required to be a major Puget Sound port, it was more than sufficient as a place to load ship holds with lumber and canned fish.
In 1886 the first cargo of lumber was shipped out of Aberdeen. And by 1889 Aberdeen had four mills producing nearly 30 million board feet of lumber. The city, itself, was named for a local salmon cannery and reflected its fishing port namesake of Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen and its neighbors vied to be the terminus for Northern Pacific Railroad, but instead of ending at one of the established mill towns, the railroad skimmed through Cosmopolis and headed west for Ocosta. Hoquiam and Aberdeen citizens banded together to build a spur; and in 1895, the line connected Northern Pacific tracks to Aberdeen. By 1890 Aberdeen, the year the city was incorporated, it could boast a population of 2,000, two sash and door factories, a shipyard, three salmon canneries, and two banks.
With a railroad connection and the lumber schooners to deliver their product, lumber production around Grays Harbor thrived. Lumber shipments and fisheries continued to be the lifeblood of Aberdeen and the surrounding communities. As ships grew in tonnage, it became clear that the bar at the harbor’s entrance would require improvements. After a failed attempt to build a jetty at the harbor entrance in 1896, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully completed a new one in 1916.
The voters of Grays Harbor County also approved the creation of a port district in 1911 and by the 1920s a channel had been dredged to Aberdeen and public wharfs were built. In 1924 a new milestone for annual lumber production was reached when the one billionth foot of timber was shipped from Aberdeen to ports around the Pacific Rim, earning the town the title of “Lumber Capital of the World.” The city was booming and the population reached 17,000. Aberdeen’s burgeoning timber industry accounted for nearly $ 10 million dollars in deposits in three local banks and two savings and loans associations. In 1923, the City of Aberdeen’s building program issued building permits in excess of $1,100,000. It was under this period of growth that the Hotel Morck was built.
By this time, the Morck family was a well-established, prominent family in the Grays Harbor area. Before coming to the United States, family patriarch Ernest A. Morck had been a commander in the Danish Navy. Reportedly he spent five years in Alaska, working as a purser on the Steamship Columbia, then as the fuel agent for the White Pass & Yukon Route. After relocating to Seattle around the turn-of-the 20th Century, in
1903 Morck built the Palace Hotel with business partner M.S. Morehouse. The six-story hotel quickly became one of the prominent hostelries in the city. Desiring a home in a smaller, more maritime-oriented area, Morck and his wife, Tillie, relocated to Aberdeen in 1910 and became part owners of the Washington Hotel on the southwest corner of Heron and ‘K’ streets. By 1915, Morck had bought out the interest of his partner A.H. Griffin, whom had started the hotel around 1903. With the booming timber economy of the Grays Harbor region, the Hotel Washington did well and became the preeminent hotel in the region. Seeing greater business opportunities, Ernest Morck began making plans for a new modern hotel.
In February of 1922 he formed the Washington Hotel Company of Aberdeen with a capital stock of $200,000. Morck had found several investors including: Eugene France (former two-term mayor and prominent lumberman, whom by 1914 was noted as a millionaire in the Spokane Daily Chronicle); Thomas Carstens (owner of Cartsens Packing Co., the largest slaughterhouse on the west coast, and a cousin of Morck); J.S. Waugh (a prominent local general merchandise owner); and Robert W. Sutcliff (former manager of Aberdeen plant of Cartsens Packing, President of Washington Products Co, and former President of the Chamber of Commerce). Morck, Sutcliff and Waugh were named directors.
The company requested two permits for the construction of a new hotel in late 1922, unsure as to whether they would add to the existing Washington Hotel, or build a new one at a different location. With the decision firmly made, in February 1923, the City of Aberdeen approved Morck’s request to build a new hotel on the northwest corner of Heron and ‘K’ streets, across the street from the existing Washington Hotel. Construction on the hotel began just as Aberdeen’s central business district was expanding to the west along the Chehalis River.
Construction on the new hotel began in the spring of 1923 and was erected at an estimated cost between $325,000 and $440,000 with an additional $60,000 in furnishings provided by Aberdeen’s Kaufman-Leonard store. The new hotel was initially to be named the “Washington Hotel.” This is evidenced by an ornate terra cotta ornament found above the main entry. Here, a large shield with a “W” is indicative the building’s original/proposed name. However, founder Ernest A. Morck died during construction (Jan 1, 1924) and subsequently his son renamed the new structure “The Hotel Morck” in honor of his father prior to its grand opening.
The grand opening for the hotel was held on April 19, 1924. The event was well attended by other hotel owners and political dignitaries. Entertainment was provided by Aberdeen native and then nationally known pianist Robert Ziegler. Upon opening, the Hotel Morck housed the Morck Coffee Shop, a barbershop and beauty parlor, an art shop, a radio supply shop, a cigar stand, and the Yellow Cab Company.The first name to be placed on the register was T.L. Hammer, a traveling freight agent with the Burlington RR. The hotel boasts 115 rooms; banquet space(the Star Room) and several restaurants such as the Coach House restaurant and Highland Room, which specialized in single-malt Scotches. The original staff at the hotel included manager C.S. Caplinger; auditor Frank Doner; Chef Frank Miller; maître de W.H. Connors; and chief clerk Gordon Wilson.
With the passing of the senior Morck, his son, Carl E., took over the management of the Morck. Stock holder Thomas Carstens challenged this transaction of controlling stock, but it was upheld after a State Supreme Court judgment in 1930. Carl E. Morck was a former a member of the State House of Representatives (1922), and helped grow the Morck Hotel business and the Grays’s Harbor region during the 1930s and 40s. As an example, Carl helped form the Coast Empire Association, a group of business and community supporters who’s goal was to advocate for the immediate construction of the coastal highway and to advertiseme tourist travel attractions in Washington and Oregon. Carl elected their first president.
Over the years, the Hotel Morck play host to a variety of governmental, social, political, and commercial functions; serving as “THE” place in town to host an event. The hotel’s Star Room was a popular high school prom venue, and the hotel itself was a honeymoon destination. Such events included the hosting of one thousand delegates from the 1,000 Order of Runeberg for their quadrennial convention in 1929. Other notable
events included hosting the Washington State Democratic Party conference in May of 1936 where future United States Representative and Senator Warren Magnusson delivered a speech to delegates on the importance of ideological dichotomy: “A bird needs two wings to fly. So does a political party.” The Hotel Morck also hosted the Washington State Bar Association Convention in 1931, the Washington State Sheriff’s Association, 10th Annual Convention (1946); the Hotel Greeters of America, Charter 10 annual meeting (1926); and a Boeing Aircraft Co. Banquet in 1944.
During World War II, the Morck hosted recurrent meetings of the Women’s Relief Corps and held numerous banquets benefitting the U.S. Army’s war effort. The Women’s Relief Corps, an extension of the fraternal Grand Army of the Republic, promoted voting rights for black veterans and played an integral role in the development of women’s activism in communities across the country. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the hotel continued to be an active gathering place for countless social and civic organizations including the Business and Professional Women Club, the Active Club, the Altrusa Club, the Kiwanis Club, the Lions Club, Rotary, Soroptomists, and Toastmasters.
From its construction, the Hotel Morck was also a central gathering place for local and regional timber industry workers and industrialists. In 1925, it hosted the Northwest Rivers & Harbors Congress Convention. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the hotel regularly hosted Grays Harbor Loggers Service Award dinners; the Rayonier Pulp & Paper Company Service Award dinners; Harbor Plywood Service Award dinners; and countless other festivities and meetings directly related to Aberdeen’s timber heritage.
In 1961, Pacific Northwest hotel owner, William Hammond, purchased the hotel. He immediately announced plans to construct an addition to the hotel on the half block to the rear. Designer Lloyd L. Black, developed a rendering of the wing, billed as a luxury motor inn complete with a rooftop swimming pool, 26 additional rooms and closed circuit TV. The motor inn never came to fruition and Hammond sold the hotel to Balanced Investments Corporation of Seattle in 1966. Balanced Investments owned of four other hotels (the Lewis & Clark in Centralia, the Cascadian in Wenatchee, the Lee in Port Angeles, and the President in Mount Vernon) scattered across the state; as well as a variety of shopping centers, and land scattered throughout WA State.
By the 1980s, the building had been converted to a low-income apartment complex and was eventually renamed the Washington Apartments. It was during this later period in which the building has a connection to Aberdeen native son, singer/songwriter Kurt Cobain, of the grunge band Nirvana. Historian and Cobain biographer, Charles R. Cross, noted that the hotel was frequented by Cobain and his friends who visited a hopeless alcoholic and his son, which they lovingly referred to as: “The Fat Man and Bobby”. The “Fat Man” was willing to buy Cobain and his friends alcohol as long as they paid for the alcohol and helped him and his disabled son, “Bobby,” get to the local supermarket. The “Fat Man and Bobby” were the subjects of Cobain’s earliest short stories and songwriting.
After a fight with his mother at 17, Cobain left home and spent about four months sneaking into buildings around Aberdeen, including the Morck, to sleep, sometimes unscrewing a lightbulb to darken a hallway, unrolling his bedroll, then stealing away in the morning before residents woke up. Cobain immortalized this period in his song “Something in the Way,” which expressed his feeling of being an outsider, in everyone’s way, unloved and abandoned by his family.
For a penniless teen who sometimes slept in an empty refrigerator box on a friend’s cold porch, the Morck’s welcoming motto “Come As You Are” may have seemed funny and apt. “Whether Kurt directly took something from that,” says Cross, “or whether it simply stayed in his subconscious a few years later when he wrote the song, is unknown, but it’s a fascinating twist, and perhaps an explanation of the genesis of the title of one of Nirvana’s greatest songs.”
Today the phrase appears on a welcome sign greeting visitors to Aberdeen, which installed a controversial statue of a weeping Cobain at the town’s history museum in 2014.
Architect – A.H. Albertson
To design the hotel, Morck hired Seattle architect, Abraham Horace Albertson (1872-1964). He was one of the cities most prolific architects and his practice reached beyond the cities boundaries. Albertson was born in Hope, New Jersey on April 14, 1872. With the assistance of a scholarship, he graduated from Columbia University in 1895 and then practiced architecture in New York City; initially as a draftsman with the firm of Clinton & Russell. After working in Duluth, Minnesota, Albertson moved to Seattle in 1907 as representative for the New York architectural firm Howell & Stokes, who had been hired by the Metropolitan Building Company to prepare a plan for the development of the University of Washington’s Metropolitan Tract. Albertson served as the Seattle representative for Howells & Stokes from 1907 to 1917 and oversaw the firms work in Seattle and as well as other West Coast cities.
Albertson’s associates during this time included Joseph Wilson and Paul Richardson. Joseph Wade Wilson (1878-1968) had joined Albertson in 1907 after reportedly coming to the Pacific Northwest to look for his brother, a timber cruiser, who had disappeared. Wilson was born in Morristown, IL and was educated at the University of Illinois receiving a BA in Engineering (1903) and a Master’s in Architecture the following year. Paul David Richardson (1888-1939) was born in Smithberg, Maryland but grew up in Seattle. After a brief architectural apprenticeship, he joined Albertson in 1910.
By 1919, Albertson had opened up his own firm A.H. Albertson & Associates with Wilson and Richardson
as associates. Together they completed most of the remaining Metropolitan Tract buildings including the White & Stuart Building (1923); the Arena Building (1925); and the Stimson Building (1925). Their eclectic training produced a variety of work in a mix of architectural styles, including the Spanish Revival style Cornish School (1921); the Art Deco Municipal Building (1930) for the City of Everett; and several Collegiate Gothic structures for the University of Washington. Other buildings of note in Seattle include Northern Life Tower (1929); the YMCA (1931); Women’s University Club (1922); and The Monte Cristo Hotel (1925) in Everett.
To supervise the construction of the hotel project in Aberdeen, Albertson hired local architect Charles A. Haynes. Haynes was born in Winona, Minnesota on March 15, 1886. His formal architectural training is unknown, but documents note that he arrived in Aberdeen around 1910. Reportedly he designed many homes, schools and business blocks in Southwest Washington. His early projects include the Cartier House (1911) in South Bend. Around 1912 he formed a partnership with architect Charles E. Troutman. Known projects by the firm of Troutman & Haynes are limited to the Bowen Brothers Garage (1913); and the YMCA Building (1919). In 1919, when Washington began licensing architects, Haynes received Washington license No. 72, under the grandfather clause. Around 1920, Haynes and Troutman parted ways and Haynes continued an independent practice. Known projects are limited to the Aberdeen Armory (with Seattle architect Lewis Svarz 1921); the Elks Temple (c.1924); the Dr. I.R. Watkins House (1926); City Retail Lumber Co. (1926); a store in Satsop (1927); and a grade school in Cosmopolis (1938). Haynes passed away in Aberdeen on April 11, 1940 at the age of 54.
The Hotel Morck brick and terra cotta exterior elements are representative of the architectural style of both architects; it seems that the collaboration of the architects suited each individual’s style, as is evident in the Morck Hotel’s exterior quality.
Unfortunately for Albertson’s firm, there was very little work during the late 1930s due to the Great Depression. His partner Richardson died suddenly in 1939, and Albertson and Wilson joined the state office of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Albertson retired as chief architect for the FHA in 1949 and passed away in 1964. Wilson retire from the FHA about the same time, but continued to work for local architect John Maloney and then for the Boeing Company. He passed away on April 18, 1964.
Contractor – Rounds-Clist Construction Co.
To build the hotel, the Morck family hired the prominent Seattle construction firm of Rounds-Clist. The company was one of the major general contracting firms in the State and facilitated the constructed of many
large scale building projects around the Washington State. The partnership had been formed between E. J. Rounds (1865-1929) and Walter Mark Clist (1880-1952) in 1918 and continued for nearly 30 years.
Founder Edgar J. Rounds was born in Crawford County, Wisconsin on May 27, 1865. Educated at an unknown business college in Madison, Wisconsin, after learning the carpenter trade, he was employed as a foreman for the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. He then took a job as the construction foreman for the N.O. Nelson Manufacturing Co. complex in St. Louis, Missouri (1890), at the time, one of the largest wholesale manufacturers and distributors of plumbing supplies in the United States. For reasons, unknown he relocated to Seattle in 1891 and began working as a general contractor for the firm of Pickarts & Company. Later he formed a short-lived partnership with Charles L. Ditlefsen. The Rounds & Ditlefson construction firm focused mainly on residential construction. Known projects are limited to the J.T. Williamson House (1900); the E.C. Fitzhenry House (1900); the Dr. D.A. Mitchell House (1900); and a mattress factory in West Seattle (1900).
By 1905 Rounds and Ditlefson had parted ways; each establishing their own general contracting firms. Projects during this time period by Rounds include the First Methodist Church (1908); the Queen Anne Fire Station; Columbia City Schoolhouse; Minor Hospital; the Stewart Hotel; Wintonia Hotel; Northern Pacific RR roundhouse and shops (at Handford St & Occidental Ave, 1917); Gaffney Warehouse (c.1905); and the Holden Warehouse. A $150,000 contract to build the seventeen acre J.F. Duthie & Co. shipbuilding plant (1918) with buildings covering over three quarters acres of floor space, most likely spurred Rounds to take on an additional partner, Walter M. Clist.
Clist was a prolific builder in his own right and was an outspoken advocate for the Association of General Contactors. In fact he was elected head of the Northwest Chapter of the Associated General Contractors in 1922. Clist lectured often on a variety of topics to local civic and social groups on different aspects of the building industry. He was born in London and spent his primary years in Spokane, Washington.
Rounds was very active in the Master Builders Association (MBA) and well respected by his fellow contractors. He had been a founding member of the Seattle MBA chapter and was appointed chairman of the committee to organize a regional Pacific Northwest master builder association. When it was formed in 1918, Rounds was elected its first secretary-treasurer.
Together the firm made a significant impact on the built environment in the Pacific Northwest. They were responsible from constructing many of prominent civic, educational and private buildings in the region. Projects in Seattle include the Cornish School of Music (1921); the Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Melrose Exchange (1921); Federal Reserve Bank (1921); National Bank of Commerce (1921); Roosevelt High School (1922); the Cambridge Apartments (1923); Women’s University Club Building (1923); the Seattle Chamber of Commerce Building (1925), Roundcliffe Apartments (1925); the Medical Dental Building (1925); the Orpheum Theater (1927, destroyed); Suzzallo Library (1927); Nile Temple Clubhouse (1927); and the Paramount Theater (1929);
Outside the city, the firm built the YMCA building in Bremerton (1919); a dining hall for Camp Sealth, a Campfire Girls summer camp on Vashon Island (1921, named after E.J. Rounds); an office building & storage building for the Superior Portland Cement Co. (1922) in Concrete; Capital National Bank in Olympia (1923); the Washington Building, Tacoma (1925); and the Paulson Medical Center (1929) and Culmstock Arms Apartments (1929) in Spokane.
After Rounds’ death in 1929 (May 23), Walter M. Clist continued to run the company under the Rounds-Clist name until he retired and liquidated the company in 1944. Clist then relocated to Laguna Beach in 1943 and died there on August 18, 1952.
Major Bibliographical References
Bibliography (Cite the books, articles, and other sources used in preparing this form.)
“1,000 Runeberg Delegates Convene on Grays Harbor” Seattle Daily Times, July 1, 1929.
“Aberdeen Hotel, Apartments Sold” Seattle Daily Times, June 8, 1966.
“Aberdeen Hotel Man Dies” Seattle Daily Times, January 2, 1924.
“Aberdeen Seeking Airplane Factory” Seattle Daily Times, October 16, 1927.
Advertisement – “Hotel Washington” Aberdeen Herald, July 3, 1914.
Advertisement – “Hotel Washington” Aberdeen Herald, January 29, 1912.
Anderson & Middleton Company. Jones Photo Historical Collection 2007-2010 10 May 2010. http://www.jonesphotocollection.com
“Articles of Incorporation” Morning Olympian, October 8, 1908.
Articles of Incorporation: Hotel Washington Company of Aberdeen – File 51828, March 18, 1922.
Bagley, Clarence. The History of Seattle from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1916.
Cross, Charles R. Heavier than Heaven: A Biography of Kurt Cobain New York: Hyperion, 2001. 50-51.
“Dismissal of Morck Hotel Suit Upheld” Seattle Daily Times, October 22, 1930
“Hotel News of the West: Featuring Hotel Morck, Aberdeen, Washington” Washington State Hotel Association. 19 (1924)
“Hotel Washington” Aberdeen Herald, October 27, 1914.
“Legislature is G.O.P.” Morning Olympian, November 13, 1922.
“Minimum Wage of $14.50 for Women is Decided Upon” Morning Olympian, July 25, 1921.
“Morck Now Sole Owner of Hotel” Aberdeen Herald, September 9, 1915.
“On Hotel Structure, Details Completed” Aberdeen Daily World, March 26, 1923
“New Hotel for Aberdeen” Seattle Daily Times, March 3, 1922.
“New Mining Companies” Morning Olympian, November 1, 1905.
“Pay $200,00o for Hotel at Raymond” Seattle Daily Times, July 5, 1926.
Perkins, Nelson S., ed. “West Coast Plywood Corporation.” Plywood Pioneers Association Monograph 16 Tacoma: Plywood Pioneers Association, 1976.
Scates, Shelby. Warren G. Magnuson and the shaping of twentieth-century America Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997. 55-56.
“Seattle Firm Buys Two Hotels” Seattle Times, April 17, 1966.
“The Palace Hotel” Seattle Sunday Times, February 7, 1904.
“Tourist Trade is Objective” Seattle Sunday Times, April 6, 1930.
“Walking Tour of Aberdeen.” The Aberdeen Daily World, June 2009.
WA DAHP Web Site; Architect Biographies; Abraham H. Albertson http://www.dahp.wa.gov/learn-and-research/architect-biographies/abraham-h-alberston
WA DAHP Web Site; Architect Biographies; Charles A. Haynes http://www.dahp.wa.gov/learn-and-research/architect-biographies/charles-a-haynes
Weinstein, Robert A. Grays Harbor, 1885-1913 New York: Penguin Books, 1978. 16-19.
Wilma, David. Grays Harbor County: A Thumbnail History 27 May 2006. 10 May 2010. http://www.historylink.org
“Women’s Clubs Meet in Aberdeen Friday” Seattle Daily Times, February 22, 1928.